First, Let's Fire All the Managers - Harvard Business Review
HBR IdeaCast podcast
The podcast mentions an company ("Morning Star Institute" / Company) that has completely "flat" structure, no managers, and is quite successful...
A small organization may have one manager and 10 employees; one with 100,000 employees and the same 1:10 span of control will have 11,111 managers. That’s because an additional 1,111 managers will be needed to manage the managers. In addition, there will be hundreds of employees in management-related functions, such as finance, human resources, and planning. Their job is to keep the organization from collapsing under the weight of its own complexity. Assuming that each manager earns three times the average salary of a first-level employee, direct management costs would account for 33% of the payroll. Any way you cut it, management is expensive.